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    A basic property of living systems is the ability to respond to extracellular signals by evoking an internal response. Signal-transduction cascades mediate the sensing and processing of these stimuli. These molecular circuits detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in enzyme activity, gene expression, phenotypic alterations, or ion-channel activity. Signal-transduction pathways follow a broadly similar course that can be viewed as a molecular circuit. Upon an environmental signal, Membrane receptors transfer information from the environment to the cell's interior. Subsequently, second messengers relay information from the receptor-ligand complex into the cell's interior. Particularly important second messengers include cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, calcium ion, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, (IP3), and diacylglycerol. While these second messengers are free to move, they can easily diffuse to other compartments of the cell, such as the nucleus, where they can influence gene expression and other processes. Interestingly, signal transduction may be amplified significantly in the generation of second messengers, since initial stimulation may lead to the generation of many second messengers within the cell. Thus, a low concentration of signal in the environment, even as little as a single molecule, can yield a large intracellular signal and response. Besides this phenomenon, cross-talk between two or more signaling cascades may occur, which permits more finely tuned regulation of cell activity than would the action of individual independent pathways[1]


    [1] Signal-Transduction Pathways: An Introduction to Information Metabolism. Biochemistry. 5th edition. J.M. Berg, J.L.Tymoczko, L. Stryer.New York, 2002.

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    Axon ID Name Description From price
    2467 (+)-ITD-1 Selective inhibitor of TGFβ/Smad signaling that promotes cardiogenesis $181.50
    2296 (S)-Crizotinib MTH1 inhibitor $93.50
    1687 (±)-E-Homocamptothecin Potent topoisomerase I (Topo 1) inhibitor $132.00
    2786 (±)-PH 797804 Inhibitor of p38α MAPK $126.50
    2537 1,5-Isoquinolinediol PARP1 inhibitor and neuroprotective agent $55.00
    2222 10058-F4 c-Myc inhibitor inducing cell-cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase $88.00
    2989 15-LOX-1 inhibitor i472 Inhibitor of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) $181.50
    2496 2,5-Dimethylcelecoxib Celecoxib analog with anti-tumor properties, lacking COX-2 inhibitory activity $82.50
    1496 3-Aminobenzamide Competitive small molecule inhibitor of PARP $44.00
    2175 3PO Inhibitor of HIF-1-induced PFKFB3, an enzyme with a key role in glycolysis. $71.50
    3189 4-CPPC First potent, selective and reversible inhibitor of MIF-2 $148.50
    3476 5-NIdR Potent inhibitor of translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) $132.00
    3245 6-Mercaptopurine Purine analog; Immunosuppressant $55.00
    3253 6-Thioguanine Purine analog; Immunosuppressant $44.00
    1909 A 1070722 Selective inhibitor of GSK-3 $104.50
    1831 A 66 PI3K inhibitor (p110-α specific) $104.50
    1466 A 769662 AMPK activator $93.50
    1744 A 77-01 TGF-βR 1 inhibitor; ALK 5 inhibitor $88.00
    1421 A 83-01 TGF-βR 1 inhibitor; ALK 5 inhibitor $77.00
    3040 Abivertinib Potent oral, irreversible, third-generation EGFR TKI with selectivity for mutant EGFRs $104.50
    3631 ABR-238901 Potent S100A8/A9 blocker $187.00
    1593 ABT 888 PARP inhibitor $44.00
    2888 ABT 888 dihydrochloride PARP inhibitor $104.50
    2857 Acalisib PI3K inhibitor (p110 δ specific) $132.00
    3590 ACT001 PAI-1 inhibitor $231.00
    3039 ACY-241 Selective and orally available HDAC6 inhibitor $132.00
    2275 AdipoRon Orally active small-molecule AdipoR agonist $88.00
    2552 Adjudin Non-hormonal male contraceptive with anti-proliferative activity $137.50
    1653 AEE 788 EGFR, ErbB2 and VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor $88.00
    1291 AEG 3482 JNK inhibitor $93.50

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